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1.Leetcode 367
2.Leetcode 678
3.Leetcode 1650
4.Leetcode 297
5.Leetcode 449
6.Leetcode 127
7.Leetcode 449
8.Leetcode 236
9.Leetcode 432
10.Lowest Common Ancestor of Deepest Leaves
11.Measure changing search results from list to box
12.Tradeoff
1. Leetcode 367
Given a positive integer num, write a function which returns True if num is a perfect square else False.

Follow up: Do not use any built-in library function such as sqrt.

 

Example 1:

Input: num = 16
Output: true

Example 2:

Input: num = 14
Output: false

 

Constraints:

  • 1 <= num <= 2^31 - 1
2. Leetcode 678
Given a string s containing only three types of characters: '(', ')' and '*', return true if s is valid.

The following rules define a valid string:

  • Any left parenthesis '(' must have a corresponding right parenthesis ')'.
  • Any right parenthesis ')' must have a corresponding left parenthesis '('.
  • Left parenthesis '(' must go before the corresponding right parenthesis ')'.
  • '*' could be treated as a single right parenthesis ')' or a single left parenthesis '(' or an empty string "".
 

Example 1:

Input: s = "()"
Output: true

Example 2:

Input: s = "(*)"
Output: true

Example 3:

Input: s = "(*))"
Output: true

 

Constraints:

  • 1 <= s.length <= 100
  • s[i] is '(', ')' or '*'.
3. Leetcode 1650
Given two nodes of a binary tree p and q, return their lowest common ancestor (LCA).

Each node will have a reference to its parent node. The definition for Node is below:

class Node {
    public int val;
    public Node left;
    public Node right;
    public Node parent;
}

According to the definition of LCA on Wikipedia: "The lowest common ancestor of two nodes p and q in a tree T is the lowest node that has both p and q as descendants (where we allow a node to be a descendant of itself)."

 

Example 1:

Input: root = [3,5,1,6,2,0,8,null,null,7,4], p = 5, q = 1
Output: 3
Explanation: The LCA of nodes 5 and 1 is 3.

Example 2:

Input: root = [3,5,1,6,2,0,8,null,null,7,4], p = 5, q = 4
Output: 5
Explanation: The LCA of nodes 5 and 4 is 5 since a node can be a descendant of itself according to the LCA definition.

Example 3:

Input: root = [1,2], p = 1, q = 2
Output: 1

 

Constraints:

  • The number of nodes in the tree is in the range [2, 105].
  • -109 <= Node.val <= 109
  • All Node.val are unique.
  • p != q
  • p and q exist in the tree.
4. Leetcode 297
Serialization is the process of converting a data structure or object into a sequence of bits so that it can be stored in a file or memory buffer, or transmitted across a network connection link to be reconstructed later in the same or another computer environment.

Design an algorithm to serialize and deserialize a binary tree. There is no restriction on how your serialization/deserialization algorithm should work. You just need to ensure that a binary tree can be serialized to a string and this string can be deserialized to the original tree structure.

Clarification: The input/output format is the same as how LeetCode serializes a binary tree. You do not necessarily need to follow this format, so please be creative and come up with different approaches yourself.

 

Example 1:

Input: root = [1,2,3,null,null,4,5]
Output: [1,2,3,null,null,4,5]

Example 2:

Input: root = []
Output: []

 

Constraints:

  • The number of nodes in the tree is in the range [0, 104].
  • -1000 <= Node.val <= 1000
5. Leetcode 449
Serialization is converting a data structure or object into a sequence of bits so that it can be stored in a file or memory buffer, or transmitted across a network connection link to be reconstructed later in the same or another computer environment.

Design an algorithm to serialize and deserialize a binary search tree. There is no restriction on how your serialization/deserialization algorithm should work. You need to ensure that a binary search tree can be serialized to a string, and this string can be deserialized to the original tree structure.

The encoded string should be as compact as possible.

 

Example 1:

Input: root = [2,1,3]
Output: [2,1,3]

Example 2:

Input: root = []
Output: []

 

Constraints:

  • The number of nodes in the tree is in the range [0, 104].
  • 0 <= Node.val <= 104
  • The input tree is guaranteed to be a binary search tree.
6. Leetcode 127
A transformation sequence from word beginWord to word endWord using a dictionary wordList is a sequence of words beginWord -> s1 -> s2 -> ... -> sk such that:

  • Every adjacent pair of words differs by a single letter.
  • Every si for 1 <= i <= k is in wordList. Note that beginWord does not need to be in wordList.
  • sk == endWord
Given two words, beginWord and endWord, and a dictionary wordList, return the number of words in the shortest transformation sequence from beginWord to endWord, or 0 if no such sequence exists.

 

Example 1:

Input: beginWord = "hit", endWord = "cog", wordList = ["hot","dot","dog","lot","log","cog"]
Output: 5
Explanation: One shortest transformation sequence is "hit" -> "hot" -> "dot" -> "dog" -> cog", which is 5 words long.

Example 2:

Input: beginWord = "hit", endWord = "cog", wordList = ["hot","dot","dog","lot","log"]
Output: 0
Explanation: The endWord "cog" is not in wordList, therefore there is no valid transformation sequence.

 

Constraints:

  • 1 <= beginWord.length <= 10
  • endWord.length == beginWord.length
  • 1 <= wordList.length <= 5000
  • wordList[i].length == beginWord.length
  • beginWord, endWord, and wordList[i] consist of lowercase English letters.
  • beginWord != endWord
  • All the words in wordList are unique.
7. Leetcode 449
Serialization is converting a data structure or object into a sequence of bits so that it can be stored in a file or memory buffer, or transmitted across a network connection link to be reconstructed later in the same or another computer environment.

Design an algorithm to serialize and deserialize a binary search tree. There is no restriction on how your serialization/deserialization algorithm should work. You need to ensure that a binary search tree can be serialized to a string, and this string can be deserialized to the original tree structure.

The encoded string should be as compact as possible.

 

Example 1:

Input: root = [2,1,3]
Output: [2,1,3]

Example 2:

Input: root = []
Output: []

 

Constraints:

  • The number of nodes in the tree is in the range [0, 104].
  • 0 <= Node.val <= 104
  • The input tree is guaranteed to be a binary search tree.
8. Leetcode 236
Given a binary tree, find the lowest common ancestor (LCA) of two given nodes in the tree.

According to the definition of LCA on Wikipedia: “The lowest common ancestor is defined between two nodes p and q as the lowest node in T that has both p and q as descendants (where we allow a node to be a descendant of itself).”

 

Example 1:

Input: root = [3,5,1,6,2,0,8,null,null,7,4], p = 5, q = 1
Output: 3
Explanation: The LCA of nodes 5 and 1 is 3.

Example 2:

Input: root = [3,5,1,6,2,0,8,null,null,7,4], p = 5, q = 4
Output: 5
Explanation: The LCA of nodes 5 and 4 is 5, since a node can be a descendant of itself according to the LCA definition.

Example 3:

Input: root = [1,2], p = 1, q = 2
Output: 1

 

Constraints:

  • The number of nodes in the tree is in the range [2, 105].
  • -109 <= Node.val <= 109
  • All Node.val are unique.
  • p != q
  • p and q will exist in the tree.
9. Leetcode 432
Design a data structure to store the strings' count with the ability to return the strings with minimum and maximum counts.

Implement the AllOne class:

  • AllOne() Initializes the object of the data structure.
  • inc(String key) Increments the count of the string key by 1. If key does not exist in the data structure, insert it with count 1.
  • dec(String key) Decrements the count of the string key by 1. If the count of key is 0 after the decrement, remove it from the data structure. It is guaranteed that key exists in the data structure before the decrement.
  • getMaxKey() Returns one of the keys with the maximal count. If no element exists, return an empty string "".
  • getMinKey() Returns one of the keys with the minimum count. If no element exists, return an empty string "".
Note that each function must run in O(1) average time complexity.

 

Example 1:

Input
["AllOne", "inc", "inc", "getMaxKey", "getMinKey", "inc", "getMaxKey", "getMinKey"]
[[], ["hello"], ["hello"], [], [], ["leet"], [], []]
Output
[null, null, null, "hello", "hello", null, "hello", "leet"]

Explanation
AllOne allOne = new AllOne();
allOne.inc("hello");
allOne.inc("hello");
allOne.getMaxKey(); // return "hello"
allOne.getMinKey(); // return "hello"
allOne.inc("leet");
allOne.getMaxKey(); // return "hello"
allOne.getMinKey(); // return "leet"

 

Constraints:

  • 1 <= key.length <= 10
  • key consists of lowercase English letters.
  • It is guaranteed that for each call to dec, key is existing in the data structure.
  • At most 5 * 104 calls will be made to inc, dec, getMaxKey, and getMinKey.
10. Lowest Common Ancestor of Deepest Leaves
 | Given a rooted binary tree, return the lowest common anCEstor of its deepest leaves
 Recall that:
 The node of a binary tree is a leaf if and only if it has no children
 The depth of the root of the tree is O, and if the depth of a node is d, the depth of each of its children is d+1.
 The lowest common ancestor of a set Sof nodes is the node A with the largest depth such that every node in S is in the subtree with root A.
11. Measure changing search results from list to box
 | 如果把linkedin给recuriter的搜索结果从list变box,你怎么看?
12. Tradeoff
 | 一个metric下降,一个metric上升如何做选择。